At a time when most transsexuals only knew of Ray Blanchard's autogynephilia model through the perspectives of other advocates like Anne Lawrence, he graciously agreed to have his original work available here.

Citation: Blanchard, R. (1989). The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 616-23. with introduction by M. H. Wyndzen. Retrievable from:

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Ray Blanchard (1989) The Concept of Autogynephilia and the Typology of Male Gender Dysphoria

I first read Ray Blanchard's research-oriented papers on autogynephilia years ago, before his ideas became well known in the transgendered community. Reading Blanchard's work directly rather than filtered through another's perspective had a profound impact on the way I view the theory. To me, it was neither the revelation and inspiration it was to Anne Lawrence (Men Trapped in Men's Bodies': An Introduction to the Concept of Autogynephilia) nor something to revile as many transsexuals see in its portrayal by J Michael Bailey (The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender Bending and Transsexualism).

I am dismayed to see how portrayals of Blanchard's model have become the source of greatest division between transsexuals and psychologists as well as between people within the broader gender-queer world. I am a part of both the psychology and transgendered communities. To those from both communities who would like to learn more about the sexuality of transsexuals, I recommend two complementary sources of information. First, I recommend reading the primary source materials so that you can think critically about the actual research rather than simply reacting to another person's summary. Second, I recommend reading about the real life experiences of transsexuals so that you do not lose sight of how sexuality fits into the larger contexts of transsexuals' lives. I hope my website, with both its theoretical and personal aspects, can help you study transgender psychology and the links between gender and sexuality.

I am happy to say that Ray Blanchard has graciously given me permission to web-publish one of his best articles on the subject. This is the article I most recommend to those interested in reading about his theory. It's well articulated and is the first and only empirical test of the key component of his theory: transsexuals with different sexual orientations have fantasies of being their target sex to different extents. The introduction summarizes much of his work from clinical intuition on the subject.

If you are most interested in understanding what Blanchard is trying to say, without necessarily critically thinking about it, you might focus on reading the introduction and discussion. The method and results are the hardest parts to read because of the technical language. When reading Blanchard's article, I recommend beginning with the appendix. It contains several of Blanchard's sexuality measures. It can be fun to take the measures yourself before reading the article. If you're not a MtF transsexual, try altering the language so that it makes sense to you.

The APA style to cite the web version of this paper is: Blanchard, R. (1989). The Concept of Autogynephilia and the Typology of Male Gender Dysphoria. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177(10), 616-623. Retrieved [today], from

After reading this article, you might be interested in a Scientific Critique of Blanchard's Mis-Directed Sex-Drive Model of Transsexuality

I have also written about two other studies by Ray Blanchard that I discuss in the context of a critique of J. Michael Bailey's perspective on transgenderism: Ray Blanchard, Leonard H. Clemmensen, & Betty W. Steiner (1985) Social Desirability Response Set and Systematic Distortion in the Self-Report of Adult Male Gender Patients and Ray Blanchard, I. G. Racansky, & Betty W. Steiner (1986) Phallometric Detection of Fetishistic Arousal in Heterosexual Male Cross-Dressers.

The web-pages referenced in the first 6 textual links of this page are on permanent loan to Ray Blanchard for purposes of making his article publicly accessible. In accordance with APA copyright standards, please note that: "This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record."

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